Posts filed under ‘World Market’

Tariffs

Import tariffs are widely used as a market access barrier in order to restrict imports of citrus fruits and citrus juices and protect national production. However, as a result of the Marrakech Agreement on agriculture in 1994, there has been a process of reduction of tariffs on imported citrus fruits and citrus juices. For addictional information on this subject, see USDA-Foreign Agricultural Service: GATT/WTO and Citrus. The following table shows the FCOJ tariff schedule for major orange juice importing countries under GATT:

Année 

Etats-Unis

Europe

Japon

1994

35,01

19

30

1995

34,13

18,37

29,25

1996

33,24

17,74

28,50

1997

32,36

17,10

27,75

1998

31,48

16,47

27,00

1999

30,59

15,84

26,25

2000 et depuis

29,71

15,20

25,50

Source: The World Market for Citrus Products and Risk Management for Florida Citrus Growers, Thomas H. Spreen and Ron Muraro, Department of Food and Resource Economics, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, October 2000
* Note: SSE=Single Strength Equivalent

The average allowed WTO tariff for oranges is 49%. The average allowed WTO tariff on frozen concentrated orange juice is 53%. See What’s at Stake for Oranges? and What’s at Stake for Orange Juice? (USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Proposal for Global Agricultural Trade Reform, Commodity Fact Sheets).

The Florida Department of Citrus provides useful links for information on citrus tariffs in Foreign Trade Information.

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August 2, 2007 at 6:07 pm Leave a comment

World Market

Exports of fresh citrus fruits represent roughly 10% of total citrus fruit production. The following chart shows the evolution of citrus fruit exports in the last decades of the nineties for total citrus fruits and the different types of fruits included in the group:

World citrus fruit exports 1961-2003 (in tons)

Source: UNCTAD from FAO data

The bulk of exports of fresh citrus fruits is situated in the Northern Hemisphere, accounting for around 62% of world fresh citrus fruit exports in 2003. The Mediterranean region plays a prominent role as fresh citrus exporter, providing nearly 60% of global fresh citrus fruits exports.

Geographical distribution of fresh citrus exports

Source: UNCTAD from FAO data
* Note: Proportion of average annual export data for 1999-2003

For the different types of citrus fruits, major exporting countries are the following, ranked as for 2003 FAO data:

Oranges Spain, South Africa, United States, Greece, Morocco, Netherlands, Turkey, Egypt, Australia, Italy
Small citrus China, Israel, South Africa, Cyprus, India, Netherlands, Pakistan, United States, Spain, Mexico
Lemons and limes Spain, Argentina, Mexico, Turkey, United States, South Africa, Netherlands, Brazil, Italy, Greece
Grapefruit United States, South Africa, Israel, Turkey, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Argentina, Cyprus, Bahamas

Southern Hemisphere countries, such as Argentina, Australia and South Africa are increasing their presence in international trade by providing off-season citrus fruits to the North. This has been favored by the improvements in storage and transportation technologies.

Major destinations of Mediterranean exports of fresh citrus fruits are the European Union countries. In the case of United States, primary destinations of fresh citrus fruits exports are Japan, Canada and Southeast Asian countries.

August 2, 2007 at 3:38 pm Leave a comment


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